Appendix 1: Institute for Archaeologists Code of Conduct

This code of conduct applies to all members of the Institute for Archaeologists (IfA), and are recommended to all those with an archaeological interest as guidelines for responsible and ethical behaviour.

* [IfA Code of conduct]( (pdf file).
* [IfA membership information](, open both to paid and voluntary sector archaeologists.

## Principle 1

**A member shall adhere to high standards of ethical and responsible behaviour in the conduct of archaeological affairs**.

### Rules

1.1 A member shall conduct himself or herself in a manner which will not bring archaeology or the Institute into disrepute.

1.2 A member shall present archaeology and its results in a responsible manner and shall avoid and discourage exaggerated, misleading or unwarranted statements about archaeological matters.

1.3 A member shall not offer advice, make a public statement, or give legal testimony involving archaeological matters, without being as thoroughly informed on the matters concerned as might reasonably be expected.

1.4 A member shall not undertake archaeological work for which he or she is not adequately qualified. He or she should ensure that adequate support, whether of advice, personnel or facilities, has been arranged.
_Note: It is the member’s duty to have regard to his/her skills, proficiencies and capabilities and to the maintenance and enhancement of these through appropriate training and learning experiences. It is The member’s responsibility to inform current or prospective employers or clients of inadequacies in his/her qualifications for any work which may be proposed; he/she may of course seek to minimise such inadequacies by acquiring additional expertise, by seeking the advice or involvement of associates or consultants, or by arranging for modifications of the work involved; similar considerations apply where a member, during the course of a project, encounters problems which lie beyond his/her competence at that time. It is also the member’s responsibility to seek adequate support services for any project in which he/she may become involved, either directly or by way of recommendation. A Corporate member (Practitioner, Associate, Member) must ensure that:
a) they carry out a minimum of 50 hours of Continual Professional Development activity in any two-year period
b) satisfactory evidence of such activity (which is expected to be in the form of Personal Development Plans and CPD logs) is provided to the Institute on request and according to such procedures decided by the Council from time_

1.5 A member shall give appropriate credit for work done by others, and shall not commit plagiarism in oral or written communication, and shall not enter into conduct that might unjustifiably injure the reputation of another archaeologist.

1.6 A member shall know and comply with all laws applicable to his or her archaeological activities whether as employer or employee, and _where appropriate_ with national and international _treaties, conventions and charters_ including annexes and schedules.

1.7 A member shall not knowingly be employed by, or contract with, an individual or entity whose purpose is the sale of items excavated and/or recovered from archaeological contexts and where such sale may lead to the irretrievable dispersal of the physical and/or intellectual archive, or where such sale may result in an undispersed archive to which public access is routinely denied.
_Note: Members may be employed by or contract with, or participate in, projects approved by the Portable Antiquities Scheme_.

1.8 A member shall abstain from, and shall not sanction in others, conduct involving dishonesty, fraud, deceit or misrepresentation in archaeological matters, nor knowingly permit the use of his/her name in support of activities involving such conduct.

1.9 A member, in the conduct of his/her archaeological work, shall not offer or accept inducements which could reasonably be construed as bribes.

1.10 A member shall not reveal confidential information unless required by law; nor use confidential or privileged information to his/her own advantage or that of a third person.
_Note: The member should also exercise care to prevent employees, colleagues, associates and helpers from revealing or using confidential information in these ways. Confidential information means information gained in the course of the project which the employer or client has for the time being requested be held inviolate, or the disclosure of which would be potentially embarrassing or detrimental to the employer or client. Information ceases to be confidential when the employer or client so indicates, or when such information becomes publicly known. Where specifically archaeological information is involved, it is however the responsibility of the member to inform the employer or client of any conflict with his/her own responsibilities under Principle 4 of the Code (dissemination of archaeological information) and to seek to minimise or remove any such conflict._

1.11 A member shall take account of the legitimate concerns of groups whose material past may be the subject of archaeological investigation.

1.12 A member has a duty to ensure that this Code is observed throughout the membership of the Institute, and also to encourage its adoption by others (see note on Rule 1.12).
_Note: From time to time the Institute receives formal or informal complaints about members and allegations of breaches of its by-laws. A member’s duty to ensure that the Code of conduct is observed includes providing information in response to a request from the Chair or a Vice Chair, and/or giving evidence to such panels and hearings as may be established for the purposes of investigating an alleged breach of the Institute’s by-laws. This requirement is without prejudice to the provisions of Rule 1.10 regarding confidential information._

1.13 A member shall ensure, as far as is reasonably practical, that all work for which he/she is directly or indirectly responsible by virtue of his/her position in the organisation undertaking the work, is carried out in accordance with this Code.

1.14 A member may find himself/herself in an ethical dilemma where he/she is confronted by competing loyalties, responsibilities or duties. In such circumstances a member shall act in accordance with the Principles of the _Code of conduct_.

## Principle 2

**The member has a responsibility for the conservation of the historic environment**.

### Rules

2.1 A member shall strive to conserve archaeological sites and material as a resource for study and enjoyment now and in the future and shall encourage others to do the same. Where such conservation is not possible he/she shall seek to ensure the creation and maintenance of an adequate record through appropriate forms of research, recording and dissemination of results.
_Note: Dissemination in these rules is taken to include the deposition of primary records and unpublished material in an accessible public archive._

2.2 Where destructive investigation is undertaken the member shall ensure that it causes minimal attrition of the historic environment consistent with the stated objects of the project.
_Note: Particular attention should be paid to this injunction in the case of projects carried out for purposes of pure research. In all projects, whether prompted by pure research or the needs of rescue, consideration should be given to the legitimate interests of other archaeologists; for example, the upper levels of a site should be conscientiously excavated and recorded, within the exigencies of the project, even if the main focus is on the underlying levels._

2.3 A member shall ensure that the objects of a research project are an adequate justification for the destruction of the archaeological evidence which it will entail.

## Principle 3

**The member shall conduct his/her work in such a way that reliable information about the past may be acquired, and shall ensure that the results be properly recorded.**

### Rules

3.1 The member shall keep himself/herself informed about developments in his/her field or fields of specialisation.

3.2 A member shall prepare adequately for any project he/she may undertake.

3.3 A member shall ensure that experimental design, recording, and sampling procedures, where relevant, are adequate for the project in hand.

3.4 A member shall ensure that the record resulting from his/her work is prepared in a comprehensible, readily usable and durable form.

3.5 A member shall ensure that the record, including artefacts and specimens and experimental results, is maintained in good condition while in his/her charge and shall seek to ensure that it is eventually deposited where it is likely to receive adequate curatorial care and storage conditions and to be readily available for study and examination.

3.6 A member shall seek to determine whether a project he/she undertakes is likely detrimentally to affect research work or projects of other archaeologists. If there is such likelihood, he/she shall attempt to minimise such effects.

## Principle 4

**The member has responsibility for making available the results of archaeological work with reasonable dispatch.**

### Rules

4.1 A member shall communicate and cooperate with colleagues having common archaeological interests and give due respect to colleagues’ interests in, and rights to information about sites, areas, collections or data where there is a shared field of concern, whether active or potentially so.

4.2 A member shall accurately and without undue delay prepare and properly disseminate an appropriate record of work done under his/her control.
_Note: Dissemination in these rules is taken to include the deposition of primary records and unpublished material in an accessible public archive. This rule carries with it the implication that A member should not initiate, take part in or support work which materially damages the historic environment unless reasonably prompt and appropriate analysis and reporting can be expected. Where results are felt to be substantial contributions to knowledge or to the advancement of theory, method or technique, they should be communicated as soon as reasonably possible to colleagues and others by means of letters, lectures, reports to meetings or interim publications, especially where full publication is likely to be significantly delayed._

4.3 A member shall honour requests from colleagues or students for information on the results of research or projects if consistent with his/her prior rights to publication and with his/her other archaeological responsibilities.
_Note: Archaeologists receiving such information shall observe such prior rights, remembering that laws of copyright may also apply._

4.4 A member is responsible for the analysis and publication of data derived from projects under his/her control. While The member exercises this responsibility he/she shall enjoy consequent rights of primacy. However, failure to prepare or publish the results within 10 years of completion of the fieldwork shall be construed as a waiver of such rights, unless such failure can reasonably be attributed to circumstances beyond the member’s control.
_Note: It is accepted that the movement of archaeologists from one employment to another raises problems of responsibility for the publication of projects. This ultimate responsibility for publication of a piece of work must be determined either by the contract of employment through which the work was undertaken, or by agreement with the original promoter of the work. It is the responsibility of The member, either as employer or employee, to establish a satisfactory agreement on this issue at the outset of work._

4.5 A member, in the event of his/her failure to prepare or publish the results within 10 years of completion of the fieldwork and in the absence of countervailing circumstances, or in the event of his/her determining not to publish the results, shall if requested make data concerning the project available to other archaeologists for analysis and publication.

4.6 A member shall accept the responsibility of informing the public of the purpose and results of his/her work and shall accede to reasonable requests for information for dispersal to the general public.
_Note: The member should be prepared to allow access to sites at suitable times and under controlled conditions, within limitations laid down by the funding agency or by the owners or the tenants of the site, or by considerations of safety or the well-being of the site._

4.7 A member shall respect contractual obligations in reporting but shall not enter into a contract which prohibits The member from including his/her own interpretations or conclusions in the resulting record, or from a continuing right to use the data after completion of the project.
_Note: Adherence to this rule may on occasion appear to clash with the requirements of rule 1.10. A client employer may legitimately seek to impose whatever conditions of confidentiality he/she wishes. A member should not accept conditions which require the permanent suppression of archaeological discoveries or interpretations._

## Principle 5

**The member shall recognise the aspirations of employees, colleagues and helpers with regard to all matters relating to employment, including career development, health and safety, terms and conditions of employment and equality of opportunity.**

### Rules

5.1 A member shall give due regard to the requirements of employment legislation relating to employees, colleagues or helpers.

5.2 A member shall give due regard to the requirements of health and safety legislation relating to employees or to other persons potentially affected by his or her archaeological activities.

5.3 A member shall give due regard to the requirements of legislation relating to employment discrimination on grounds of race, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation or religious belief.

5.4 A member shall ensure that adequate insurance cover is maintained for persons or property which may be affected by his or her archaeological activities.

5.5 A member shall give due regard to the welfare of employees, colleagues and helpers in relation to terms and conditions of service. He or she shall give reasonable consideration to any IFA recommended pay minima and conditions of employment.

5.6 A member shall give reasonable consideration to cumulative service and proven experience of employees, colleagues or helpers when deciding rates of remuneration and other employment benefits, such as leave.

5.7 A member shall have due regard to the rights of individuals who wish to join or belong to a trade union, professional or trade association.

5.8 A member shall give due regard and appropriate support to the training and development of employees, colleagues or helpers to enable them to execute their duties.