The technical terms and organisational names and acronyms used by archaeologists are manifold, and can be very bemusing even to those working in archaeology! The glossary below is hence quite large, but should contain most of the terms and names that you are likely to come across in archaeology in the United Kingdom. To help with finding the term you are looking for, it is divided into three sections: archaeology and heritage organisations; projects and resources, and technical archaeological terms.
The glossary terms are taken primarily from the IfA Standards and Guidance, and also from Informing the Future of the Past:Guidelines for Historic Environment Records (http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/ifp). Further terminology, should you need it, can also be accessed via the MDA Archaeological Objects Thesaurus (http://thesaurus.english-heritage.org.uk/frequentuser.htm).
## Archaeological Resources and Projects, and their acronyms
**ADS** – Archaeology Data Service: provides services for the AHDS relating to digital resources that are created as a product of archaeological research, in collaboration with national and local agencies.
**AONB** – Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
**Archaeological Objects Thesaurus** – A thesaurus that is maintained by the mda (see above) to provide indexing terminology for archaeological objects.
**BIAB** – British and Irish Archaeological Bibliography: an annual indexed list of archaeological publications for Great Britain and Ireland maintained by the CBA, with funding from national heritage agencies and others. www.biab.ac.uk
**CANMAP** – A map enabled query system for Canmore (see below). http://jura.rcahms.gov.uk/CANMAP/Map
**Canmore** – Canmore is the name given to the RCAHMS database. It contains details of numerous archaeological sites, monuments, buildings and maritime sites in Scotland, together with an index to the drawings, manuscripts and photographs in the NMRS collections. Images of some of the photographs or drawings in the collection are also available in Canmore. http://canmore.rcahms.gov.uk. Searches can be made on name, location, site type or collection, or by using the Canmore mapping service, CANMAP (see below).
**CARN (Wales)** – Core Archaeological Record Index. CARN is a national information resource for archaeology and architecture compiled by archaeological organisations across Wales.
**Coflein** – Coflein is the online databse for the National Monuments Record of Wales (NMRW) – the national collection of information about the historic environment of Wales. The name is derived from the Welsh cof (memory) and lein (line) www.coflein.gov.uk.
**CRM** – Cultural Resource Management.
**DAC** – Diocesan Advisory Committee
**Diocesan archaeologist** – Church of England archaeological adviser.
**DOB** – the CBA’s Defence of Britain project. This is no longer active, but the results of survey of WW2 defence sites can be found at: http://old.britarch.ac.uk/projects/dob/index.html
**DPA** – Data Protection Act: 1998 Act of Parliament setting out the obligations of the holders of personal data to the subjects of that data.
**ELS** – Entry Level Agri-Environment Scheme (England). www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/farming/funding/es/default.aspx
**Environmental record** – Records of the natural environment.
**ESA** – Environmentally Sensitive Area.
**Excavation Index** – English Heritage's record of archaeological interventions in England maintained by the National Monuments Record (NMR). For more information see http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/collections/blurbs/304.cfm
**Festival of British Archaeology** – formerly known as National Archaeology Week. Two-week long annual celebration of archaeology across the UK through hundreds of events and activities. The Festival of British Archaeology is coordinated by the Council for British Archaeology. www.archaeologyfestival.org.uk.
**FLO** – Finds Liaison Officer of the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS – see www.finds.org.uk).
**FOI** – Freedom of Information Act, 2000.
**HBR** – Historic Buildings Records: a name used for local-authority records providing an information-management tool for both listed buildings and other buildings of local and regional historical interest.
**HEIRS** – Historic Environment Information Resources: organisations with information systems relating to archaeology and the historic environment.
**Historic Environment Record (HER)** – this holds information on archaeological sites, historic buildings and other historic environment features, most commonly at a county level. Most HERs are open for users to visit and consult records and maps. Many can be consulted online, while others provide information on request. HERs are continually updated by local authority archaeologists, archaeological contractors and the results of any other archaeological research provided that this is passed on to the HER Officer or equivalent. HERs are also updated using online dissemination via OASIS. Online access to HERs is constantly being improved, and at present England’s HERs can be accessed via [Heritage Gateway](http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/gateway), while Wales’ can be accessed via [Archwilio](http://www.archwilio.org.uk) or the [Historic Wales Portal](http://jura.rcahms.gov.uk/NMW/start.jsp).
**HLA** – Historic Landuse Assessment: an analysis of past and present land use in Scotland
**HLAMAP** – HLAMAP is a web-based presentation of HLA data for Scotland that allows the user to view the data by Historic Land-use Type, Period or Category as well as by Relict Period and to print out a report of any selected area. http://hla.rcahms.gov.uk.
**HLC** – Historic landscape characterisation: English Heritage programme to inform landscape-conservation strategies in the context of planning and agricultural policies. It is aimed at ascertaining and presenting the historic character of the present day landscape, in a form which accurately represents the complexity of the evidence.
**HLS** – Higher Level Agri-Environment Scheme. www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/farming/funding/es/hls/default.aspx
**HPR** – Heritage Protection Review.
**Images of England** – Images of England is an EH, HLF funded project to put a photograph of every Listed Building on the internet
**ISBN** – International Standard Book Number.
**LaMIS** – Land Management Information Service. http://lamis.everysite.co.uk/lamis.
**LB Online** –a version of LBS accessible to Local Authorities and Statutory Amenity Societies via the internet.
**LBS** – Listed Building System. The LBS is the English Heritage database for managing information on Listed Buildings.
**LCA** – Landscape Character Assessment.
**LCT** – Landscape Character Types
**LHI** – Local Heritage Initiative: a national grant scheme that was funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund and the Nationwide Building Society to help people care for their local landscape, landmarks and traditions. The national scheme followed Countryside Agency pilot projects, which ranged from lime-kilns to local histories, wildlife sites to walls and way marks.
**LPA** – Local Planning Authority.
**MAGIC** – Multi-Agency Geographic Information for the Countryside: this brings together spatial information form a number of key environmental schemes and designations from six government organisations. The MAGIC partners are: DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), English Heritage, Natural England, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Department for Communities and Local Government.
**MARS** – Monuments at Risk Survey: funded by English Heritage and run by Bournemouth University.
**MPP** – Monuments Protection Programme: an English heritage programme of site evaluation with the aim of adding to the schedule of nationally important Scheduled Monuments.
**National Heritage Datasets** – A series of computer-based records maintained by English Heritage, including: National Monuments Record (the AMIE database); Record of Scheduled Monuments (RSM database); List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest (LBS database); Register of Parks and Gardens; Battlefields Register; Buildings at Risk Register; Protected Wrecks and list of World Heritage Sites.
**NGR** – National Grid Reference: a spatial referencing system for the British Isles developed by the Ordnance Survey (OS). A National Grid Reference locates a point north and east of a point of origin that lies close to the Isles of Scilly, and so is a different system from the use of latitude and longitude.
**NLAP** – National Library of Air Photographs: a collection of vertical and oblique aerial photographs providing complete national coverage of England. Maintained by the NMR.
**NMP** – National Mapping Programme: an English Heritage project to map the archaeological resource known from aerial photography and to provide a more reliable framework for classifying and dating sites.
**NMRE** – National Monuments Record (England): an information resource for England's historic environment established by the RCHME and now maintained by English Heritage. The NMR contains major collections of aerial photographs, ground photographs of buildings and archaeological monuments, plans, sketches and drawings and databases of monuments, events and archives.
**NMRS** – National Monuments Record for Scotland.
**NMRW** – National Monuments Record (Wales)
**NPPG** – National Planning Policy Guideline (Scotland)
**OASIS** – On-line Access to the Index of Archaeological Interventions: a partnership project between English Heritage and the ADS funded by the Research Support Libraries Programme. www.oasis.ac.uk.
**PaG** – Parks and Gardens Registration System.
**PAN** – Planning Advice Note (Scotland)
**Pastmap** – A map enabled query system for Scottish National Archaeological and Architectural Datasets. www.rcahms.gov.uk/pastmap.html.
**PastScape** – Online resource developed by English Heritage’s National Monuments Record (NMR) which provides an easy-to-use way to find information about many of England’s ancient and historical sites, buildings and monuments. The information within PastScape is taken directly from the NMR’s national historic environment database. These records contain descriptions of any interesting archaeological details, pictures (where available) and links to maps and aerial photographs on other websites.
**PPG** – Planning Policy Guidance Note: a series of guidance notes issued by the DoE identifying issues to be taken into consideration by local planning authorities. (England)
**PPS** – Planning Policy Statement. These are starting to supersede the PPG notes (above); the most significant PPS for the historic environment is PPS5 (www.communities.gov.uk/publications/planningandbuilding/pps5).
**Protected Wreck** – These are wreck sites in UK waters which have been identified and designated for protection by the DCMS.
**Recording-practice guidelines** – Desk manuals for use in HERs and the NMR that are based around national data standards but which aim to provide practical guidance on how to record in the local situation. They may include guidelines on sources, monument categories, adding and editing records, etc.
**Registered Battlefields** – A register of battlefields of special historical interest, to draw attention to the importance of these sites. For English battlefields it has been compiled by English Heritage.
**Registered Parks and Gardens** – A register of parks and gardens of special historical interest, to draw attention to the importance of these sites. For parks and gardens in England it has been compiled by English Heritage. Parks and Gardens dating from 1939 or earlier are included in the register and the gardens are graded (I, II* or II) to indicate their interest.
**RIGS** – Regionally Important Geological Sites.
**ROW** – Rights of Way, footpaths and other routes along which members of the public have the right to pass.
**RSM** – Record of Scheduled Monuments. The RSM is the English Heritage database for managing information on Scheduled Monuments.
**SAM** – 1) Scheduled Ancient Monument: Scotland and Wales (for England see SM). 2) Scottish Archaeology Month: annual Scotland-wide celebration of archaeology through special events and activities. Taking place every September, coordinated by [Archaeology Scotland](http://www.archaeologyscotland.org.uk).
**SCAPE** – Scottish Coastal Archaeology and the Problem of Erosion.
**SCRAN** – Scottish Cultural Resources Access Network.
**SMR** – Sites and Monuments Record.
**SWAD** – Scottish Wetland Archaeological Database.
**SEA** – Strategic Environment Assesment
**SLA** – Service Level Agreement: an agreement between a client and a contractor that sets out agreed service levels, for example minimum response time, the number of hours of telephone support, replacement equipment, etc.
**SMR** – Sites and Monuments Record. Although often now known as Historic Environment Records (HERs – see above) particularly in England, some individual records still use the title SMR.
**SPP** – Scottish Planning Policy: guidance issued by the Scottish Executive.
**SSSI** – Sites of Special Scientific Interest.
**Statutory instrument** – Any designation to which the Statutory Instruments Act 1946 applies.
**Strategic plan** – A high-level planning document which sets out an organisation's overall aims and objectives for the next three to five years.
**Thesaurus of Building Materials** – A thesaurus maintained by the English NMR to provide an index to materials used in the construction of buildings and other structures such as public monuments, garden ornaments, street furniture, and so forth. http://thesaurus.english-heritage.org.uk.
**Thesaurus of Monument Types** - A thesaurus maintained by the NMR to provide an index to monuments, buildings and other built structures by character and function. http://thesaurus.english-heritage.org.uk.
**TORC** – Training Online Resource Centre. www.torc.org.uk
**TPO** – Tree Preservation Order.
**Treasure Act** – The 1996 Act in force in England, Wales and Northern Ireland that defines which finds or objects should be reported to local coroners as Treasure.
**Treasure Trove** – the term given to the different legislation in Scotland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands relating to procedure dealing with, and definition of ‘Treasure’ in those areas.
**Ty Gofal** – All Wales Agri-Environment Scheme. www.tynybrynfarms.com/tir-gofal.htm
**UAD** – Urban Archaeological Database.
**UDP** – Urban Development Plan (Wales).
**WHS** – World Heritage Site: A site which is identified on the list of cultural and natural properties protected under the UNESCO Convention on World Heritage agreed by the World Heritage Committee.